In: Medaon. The eviction and forced displacement to so-called collection flats within their hometowns and in Vienna are barely being mentioned in the ego documents of the Jews and Jewesses dislodged from Lower Austria between Neither the affected persons themselves nor the historians researching the Shoah attributed high importance to this initial displacement; it was too much overshadowed by the subsequent traumatic events.
The present project therefore for the first time looked into the hitherto unevaluated archival material and life historical sources in order to examine the administrative and regulatory processes on the one hand and the impact on those affected on the other hand. Two seventh grade classes of two high schools in St. Based on their own reflection on the meaning of living and being at home, the adolescents discussed the information gained on forced displacement within the Jewish ego documents.
Wolfgang Gasser documented their cognitive process.
In a second sub-project Philipp Mettauer researched the organisation and processing of forced displacements by National Socialist authorities. Furthermore, number, location, size and furnishings of those collection flats in Vienna as well as the life realities and the freedom of action of its inhabitants were being looked into.
For the reconstruction of living conditions and social networks from those displaced from St. Further, some pupils voluntarily took part in organising a meeting of St. Projectleader: mail: PD Dr. Martha Keil Researchers: mail: Dr.
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Wolfgang Gasser , mail: Dr. Philipp Mettauer , Mag. This project has a Top Citizen Science-extension project. The aim of the project is to find out more about various aspects of Christian-Jewish coexistence before, during and after the war — friendship, school, professional and everyday life. More information. So far, a history of the Jews in Lower Austria from the time of Tolerance to the creation of the communities in the middle of the 19th century to the eve of their destruction in had to be wished for.
An integrate history of the Jews of Lower Austria and of their 15 communities during that period, however, has now been completed, taking political, cultural, religious, social and economic questions into consideration. The origin of the first Jewish immigrants in the middle of the 19th century was looked into, as well as the circumstances that led to the foundation of the communities. How did the communities develop in the following decades, how was the infrastructure synagogues, cemeteries, etc set up and how could the communities establish themselves during that time?
Further, the question of the degree of integration of Jews into non-Jewish majority society as well as the integration of the IKGs into the public life of towns and cities where they were located has been looked into. The problems of assimilation and of secularisation as well as their repercussion on the IKG — e. An analysis of the results from the community elections as well as a comparison of these results with each other offers now some insight into the inner political relations of the communities — in addition, the IKG's inner conflicts concerning religious questions were picked out as a central theme.
Further, a focus lay on the research of Jewish clubs and organisations as well as the beginnings of Zionism in Lower Austria and its development until Mandelbaum Verlag, Wien Further Information. The research project was to concern itself with a so far rather neglected aspect of cultural and religious identity using the Viennese rabbi and historian Max Meir Grunwald — as an example.
It is not only reflected in the biography of Max Grundwald, who was the husband of Margarethe Bloch who was in turn the daughter of the pugnacious rabbi and member of parliament Samuel Bloch. His complex identity is also reflected in a new interpretation of Jewish history between modern science and folklore. Thus the historiographic work of Max Grunwald and the conditions of its genesis in Vienna have to be categorised and contextualised within the Jewish historiography of the early 20th century. Understanding historiography as a maker of identity, the research project looked into the aspect of multi-stratification and the by no means lacking contradictoriness of religious and cultural Jewish identities.
The history of historiography, museological history and the question of places and rites of memory form different contexts in which various identities have been asked for. The biographical details of Grunwald — , whose path led from Hamburg and Vienna to Jerusalem, already refer to the fact that Jewish history should not and cannot simply be seen as part of a local, regional or national history, but that it is to be localised within a super-national history. Information: mail: Barbara Staudinger. Ausstellungskatalog hg. Eine Standortbestimmung gem.
Project supervisor: mail: PD Dr. Martha Keil Finished Besides plenty of records associated with the family business, the Rothschild Archive in London preserves a valuable collection of personal papers. These documents enable historians to obtain a special view of several members of the most prominent Jewish family of the 19th Century.
But not only can the Rothschilds be explored — a special preciosity within the private papers of the Archive leads to Austria and into the world of the Jewish family Schey, more precisely into the world of Mathilde Schey — Mathilde was one of eight children of the wholesale merchant Friedrich Schey — and his wife Hermine, formerly Landauer — The Schey family was part of the Jewish upper-class of Vienna.
The story of the advancement of the family exemplifies the stories of many wealthy Jewish families at that time, who managed to benefit from the economic conditions and the finally achieved equality under public law. In the exhibition catalogue, Mathilde is mainly mentioned in connection with her husband, the chemist, Adolph Lieben. The existing letters of Mathilde to her cousin Marie embrace the period from to Not only the intensive practice of the writing itself — which had already been cultivated during infancy — but also the contents of the letters, bear witness to the adoption of bourgeois values and conceptions, and to belonging to the social upper—class in Austria.
Therefore one central question within the analysis of the letters will be how the protagonists dealt with the balancing act between the conservation of Jewish autonomy and identity on the one hand, and assimilation and cosmopolitanism on the other. It becomes apparent that this network acted as a social safety net, and that help from the wealthier family members was virtually called for.
The letters provide rich material for detailed research into the family—historical aspects of the networks and the social environment of the ladies Schey Lieben and Perugia Rothschild. Furthermore the letters offer an insight into the cultural practices of the Jewish bourgeoisie in the last two decades of the 19th Century.
Special attention shall be paid, for example, to references to the realities of life, travelling, upbringing and education as well as to mentions of cultural consumption literature, music, theatre. Last, but not least, the letters — written from one woman to the other — allow insights into female sites and areas of the Jewish bourgeoisie.
It will be of central interest to explore role models, constructions, expectations, self-cognition and positioning within the family and within society. Amongst others, the question of a possible multilayered female identity shall be traced: Mathilde Schey, for example, was in different phases of her life, both an upper-class-woman and a Jewess, as well as a wife and, subsequently, a widow. One can suppose that diverse patterns of action arose from each aspect of this multilayered identity. All items were reproduced with the permission of The Rothschild Archive.
Wien, Oktober In the 13th century the legal and social situation — but not the socio-religious status — of women in Ashkenazi communities, France and Italy experienced a significant improvement both under Jewish law and under the civil laws governing the Jews legal status in court, mobility, education, protection from mistreatment, easing of some Halakhic constraints, e. This was due to their increasing importance in the economic life of the town, community and family. Although women accounted for only 5 per cent of the major loans to Austrian rulers and nobles, the lifestyle and possibilities for Jewish women from upper-class families were similar to those of noble women.
At a regional level they accounted for one third of the business transactions with tradesmen and the lower classes. Not surprisingly, many of the businesswomen were widows, although there were a good number of married women as well. Even though the structure of authority of the mediaeval patriarchal society of Jews as well as of Christians was not broken down fundamentally, individual women did succeed in gaining communal power and influence by virtue of their financial means — this aspect of Jewish history has only become visible through the methods of Gender Studies.
Women functioned as negotiators, tax collectors, cemetery administrators and in two cases even as chairwomen of the parish council. The consequent exclusion of women from synagogues and services stands in extreme contrast to their in many ways self-determined lives. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that this exclusion aimed at ousting women from the last bulwark of public honour.
The rabbis' main argument was female morality that also defined man's high reputation — here the parallel to statements of Christian scholars is baffling. On the other hand, Jewish women did internalise the roles ascribed to them and even increased them voluntarily. They possibly oriented themselves towards the most holy women of Christian society, the nuns, who had been banned from the church building by architectural manifestations and similar concepts. In: Gerald Lamprecht Hg. Graz Clio -historische und gesellschaftspolitische Schriften 8 , 35— In: Wirtschaftsgeschichte der mittelalterlichen Juden Hg.
In: Chilufim. In: Zwischen den Zeilen. Ein Werkstattbericht, in: Ein Thema — zwei Perspektiven, ebda. In: Beste aller Frauen. Weibliche Dimensionen im Judentum. Ausstellungskatalog Hg. Jg, Nr.
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In: Europas Juden im Mittelalter. Speyer , S. The Jews of Europe in the Middle Ages.
Aller Anfang — Geburt, Birth , Naissance. Tagungsband der 5. Oktober , hg. Trier , — In: Pardes Nr. In: Frauen in der Stadt. Budapest , S. An extensive database was established between — as result of a research project of the Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Culture.